【NASA APIs】Asteroids – NeoWs

2019年10月26日 0 作者 snowysong@live.com
阅读需要6分钟

NeoWs (Near Earth Object Web Service) 近地小行星网络服务。

This API is maintained by SpaceRocks Team: David Greenfield, Arezu Sarvestani, Jason English and Peter Baunach.


Neo – Feed

按照最近的近地日期来选择对应的小行星列表。

GET https://api.nasa.gov/neo/rest/v1/feed?start_date=START_DATE&end_date=END_DATE&api_key=API_KEY

Query Parameters

ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
start_dateYYYY-MM-DDnone Starting date for asteroid search
end_dateYYYY-MM-DD 7 days after start_date Ending date for asteroid search
api_keystringDEMO_KEYapi.nasa.gov key for expanded usage

Example query

https://api.nasa.gov/neo/rest/v1/feed?start_date=2015-09-07&end_date=2015-09-08&api_key=DEMO_KEY

返回Json解析

{
  "links": {
    "next(下一日)": "http://www.neowsapp.com/rest/v1/feed?start_date=2015-09-10&end_date=2015-09-11&detailed=false&api_key=DEMO_KEY",
    "prev(前一日)": "http://www.neowsapp.com/rest/v1/feed?start_date=2015-09-08&end_date=2015-09-09&detailed=false&api_key=DEMO_KEY",
    "self(当日)": "http://www.neowsapp.com/rest/v1/feed?start_date=2015-09-09&end_date=2015-09-10&detailed=false&api_key=DEMO_KEY"
  },
  "element_count(天体数量)": 17,
  "near_earth_objects": {
    "2015-09-10": [
      {
        "links": {
          "self": "http://www.neowsapp.com/rest/v1/neo/3754387?api_key=DEMO_KEY"
        },
        "id": "3754387",
        "neo_reference_id": "3754387",
        "name": "(2016 NZ)",
        "nasa_jpl_url": "http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=3754387",
        "absolute_magnitude_h": 21.389,
        "estimated_diameter": {
          "kilometers": {
            "estimated_diameter_min": 0.1402022478,
            "estimated_diameter_max": 0.3135017567
          },
          "meters": {
            "estimated_diameter_min": 140.2022478229,
            "estimated_diameter_max": 313.5017567302
          },
          "miles": {
            "estimated_diameter_min": 0.0871176109,
            "estimated_diameter_max": 0.1948009001
          },
          "feet": {
            "estimated_diameter_min": 459.9811427472,
            "estimated_diameter_max": 1028.5491035508
          }
        },
        "is_potentially_hazardous_asteroid": false,
        "close_approach_data": [
          {
            "close_approach_date": "2015-09-10",
            "close_approach_date_full": null,
            "epoch_date_close_approach": 1441868400000,
            "relative_velocity": {
              "kilometers_per_second": "9.9745968985",
              "kilometers_per_hour": "35908.5488345684",
              "miles_per_hour": "22312.175802235"
            },
            "miss_distance": {
              "astronomical": "0.4835076765",
              "lunar": "188.0844861585",
              "kilometers": "72331718.533049055",
              "miles": "44944845.776244759"
            },
            "orbiting_body": "Earth"
          }
        ],
        "is_sentry_object": false
      }
    ]
  }
}

***注意*** 上述JSON中每一个”near_earth_objects”下“日期节点”下的天体信息节点除轨道信息(”orbital_data”)外,其余天体信息符合下文Neo – Lookup返回JSON内容格式,翻译详见下文。


Neo – Lookup

依据 NASA JPL small body (SPK-ID) ID 来查询具体小行星信息。

GET https://api.nasa.gov/neo/rest/v1/neo/

Path Parameters

ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
asteroid_id int none Asteroid SPK-ID correlates to the NASA JPL small body
api_key string DEMO_KEY api.nasa.gov key for expanded usage

Example query

https://api.nasa.gov/neo/rest/v1/neo/3542519?api_key=DEMO_KEY

返回Json解析

{
  "links(链接)": {
    "self(链接本身)": "http://www.neowsapp.com/rest/v1/neo/3092164?api_key=DEMO_KEY"
  },
  "id(id)": "3092164",
  "neo_reference_id(Neo引用id)": "3092164",
  "name(名称)": "(1997 VG)",
  "designation(命名名称)": "1997 VG",
  "nasa_jpl_url(nasa图片库地址)": "http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=3092164",
  "absolute_magnitude_h(绝对星等)": 22.2,
  "estimated_diameter(估测直径)": {
    "kilometers(千米)": {
      "estimated_diameter_min": 0.096506147,
      "estimated_diameter_max": 0.2157943048
    },
    "meters(米)": {
      "estimated_diameter_min": 96.5061469579,
      "estimated_diameter_max": 215.7943048444
    },
    "miles(英里)": {
      "estimated_diameter_min": 0.059966121,
      "estimated_diameter_max": 0.134088323
    },
    "feet(英尺)": {
      "estimated_diameter_min": 316.6212271853,
      "estimated_diameter_max": 707.9865871058
    }
  },
  "is_potentially_hazardous_asteroid(是否是具有潜在威胁的小行星)": false,
  "close_approach_data(接近数据)": [
    {
      "close_approach_date(接近日期)": "1997-10-30",
      "close_approach_date_full(接近日期完整格式)": "1997-Oct-30 13:16",
      "epoch_date_close_approach(纪元日期)": 878217360000,
      "relative_velocity(相对速度)": {
        "kilometers_per_second(Km/s)": "17.7898822371",
        "kilometers_per_hour(Km/h)": "64043.576053592",
        "miles_per_hour(M/h)": "39794.1875761889"
      },
      "miss_distance(飞越偏差)": {
        "astronomical(天文学单位)": "0.0825160739",
        "lunar(地月距离单位)": "32.0987527471",
        "kilometers(千米)": "12344228.896202593",
        "miles(米)": "7670348.1573300634"
      },
      "orbiting_body(轨道天体)": "Earth"
    }
  ],
  "orbital_data(轨道数据)": {
    "orbit_id(轨道id)": "13",
    "orbit_determination_date(轨道测定日期)": "2017-04-06 09:17:57",
    "first_observation_date(首次观测日期)": "1997-10-30",
    "last_observation_date(末次观测日期)": "1997-11-09",
    "data_arc_in_days": 10,
    "observations_used(曾观测到次数)": 79,
    "orbit_uncertainty(不确定轨道)": "8",
    "minimum_orbit_intersection(最小轨道面交线)": ".0818401",
    "jupiter_tisserand_invariant(木星蒂塞朗参数)": "3.887",
    "epoch_osculation(观察纪元)": "2450756.5",
    "eccentricity(偏心率)": ".4013047640621201",
    "semi_major_axis(半长轴)": "1.748717422635951",
    "inclination(倾斜度)": "30.9280379318637",
    "ascending_node_longitude(上升节点经度)": "219.5594769011091",
    "orbital_period(轨道周期)": "844.652131471439",
    "perihelion_distance(近日点距离)": "1.046948789933712",
    "perihelion_argument(近日点角距)": "154.4455716615414",
    "aphelion_distance(远日点距离)": "2.45048605533819",
    "perihelion_time(近日点时间)": "2450730.094677552260",
    "mean_anomaly(平近点角)": "11.25423796021976",
    "mean_motion(平均运动)": ".4262109649482048",
    "equinox(二分日)": "J2000",
    "orbit_class(轨道类)": {
      "orbit_class_type(轨道类型)": "AMO",
      "orbit_class_description(轨道描述)": "Near-Earth asteroid orbits similar to that of 1221 Amor",
      "orbit_class_range(轨道范围)": "1.017 AU < q (perihelion) < 1.3 AU"
    }
  },
  "is_sentry_object(是否是哨兵天体)": false
}

Neo – Browse

查询所有小行星。

GET https://api.nasa.gov/neo/rest/v1/neo/browse/

Example query

https://api.nasa.gov/neo/rest/v1/neo/browse?api_key=DEMO_KEY

返回Json解析

{
  "links": {
    "next(下一页)": "http://www.neowsapp.com/rest/v1/neo/browse?page=1&size=20&api_key=DEMO_KEY",
    "self(本页)": "http://www.neowsapp.com/rest/v1/neo/browse?page=0&size=20&api_key=DEMO_KEY"
  },
  "page": {
    "size(每页展示星体数量)": 20,
    "total_elements(总星体个数)": 22154,
    "total_pages(总页数)": 1108,
    "number(页码)": 0
  },
  "near_earth_objects": [
    {
      "links": {
        "self": "http://www.neowsapp.com/rest/v1/neo/2021277?api_key=DEMO_KEY"
      },
      "id": "2021277",
      "neo_reference_id": "2021277",
      "name": "21277 (1996 TO5)",
      "designation": "21277",
      "nasa_jpl_url": "http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=2021277",
      "absolute_magnitude_h": 16.1,
      "estimated_diameter": {
        "kilometers": {
          "estimated_diameter_min": 1.6016033798,
          "estimated_diameter_max": 3.5812940302
        },
        "meters": {
          "estimated_diameter_min": 1601.6033797856,
          "estimated_diameter_max": 3581.2940301941
        },
        "miles": {
          "estimated_diameter_min": 0.9951898937,
          "estimated_diameter_max": 2.2253122528
        },
        "feet": {
          "estimated_diameter_min": 5254.6044325359,
          "estimated_diameter_max": 11749.652706022
        }
      },
      "is_potentially_hazardous_asteroid": false,
      "close_approach_data": [
        {
          "close_approach_date": "1945-06-07",
          "close_approach_date_full": "1945-Jun-07 22:35",
          "epoch_date_close_approach": -775272300000,
          "relative_velocity": {
            "kilometers_per_second": "15.5094751736",
            "kilometers_per_hour": "55834.1106249398",
            "miles_per_hour": "34693.1450158133"
          },
          "miss_distance": {
            "astronomical": "0.0334235374",
            "lunar": "13.0017560486",
            "kilometers": "5000090.002905338",
            "miles": "3106911.8583881444"
          },
          "orbiting_body": "Mars"
        }
      ],
      "orbital_data": {
        "orbit_id": "160",
        "orbit_determination_date": "2019-02-25 06:46:25",
        "first_observation_date": "1990-02-04",
        "last_observation_date": "2019-02-22",
        "data_arc_in_days": 10610,
        "observations_used": 641,
        "orbit_uncertainty": "0",
        "minimum_orbit_intersection": ".312604",
        "jupiter_tisserand_invariant": "3.267",
        "epoch_osculation": "2458600.5",
        "eccentricity": ".520679713558904",
        "semi_major_axis": "2.377072796215251",
        "inclination": "20.95132822546138",
        "ascending_node_longitude": "167.3838999709471",
        "orbital_period": "1338.634919322609",
        "perihelion_distance": "1.139379213573231",
        "perihelion_argument": "250.19366847",
        "aphelion_distance": "3.61476637885727",
        "perihelion_time": "2458492.623748312731",
        "mean_anomaly": "29.01123379260778",
        "mean_motion": ".2689306806535207",
        "equinox": "J2000",
        "orbit_class": {
          "orbit_class_type": "AMO",
          "orbit_class_description": "Near-Earth asteroid orbits similar to that of 1221 Amor",
          "orbit_class_range": "1.017 AU < q (perihelion) < 1.3 AU"
        }
      },
      "is_sentry_object": false
    }
  ]
}

***注意*** 上述JSON中每一个”near_earth_objects”的子节点均符合上文Neo – Lookup返回JSON内容格式,翻译也与之相同,详见 Neo – Lookup 中JSON解析。


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